درباره آب های زیرزمینی بیشتر بدانیم ...

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درباره آب های زیرزمینی بیشتر بدانیم ...

منابع آب قابل برداشت جهان به دو قسمت آب های زیرزمینی و آب های سطحی تقسیم بندی می شوند. آب زيرزميني آبي است که در زير سطح زمين ذخیره شده است. گاهی صدها سال طول می کشد تا مخزن های آب زیرزمینی تشکیل شوند. اکثر اوقات، آب هاي زيرزميني سالها حتي قرنها قبل از مصرف دست نخورده باقي مي‌مانند. بيش از 90% آب آشاميدني کل جهان از آب زيرزميني تامین می شود.

شیوه های استفاده از آب های زیرزمینی شامل دو گونه مصنوعی و طبیعی می باشد. در شیوه طبیعی چشمه چشمه­ها به طور طبیعی از زمین می جوشد و آب­های زیر زمینی از این طریق بر سطح زمین جاری می گردد. از روشهای مصنوعی استفاده از منابع آب زیر زمینی می توان به حفر چاه و قنات اشاره کرد. حفر چاه  شامل دو گونه نیمه عمیق و عمیق می باشد. چاه نیمه عمیق معمولاٌ با دست آن را حفر می کنند و مقنی ها در احداث این نوع چاهها از تجربیات زیادی برخوردارند. آب های زیرزمینی در این موارد نزدیک به سطح زمین قرار دارند. چاه های عمیق را با دستگاه حفاری حفر می کنند و پس از اتمام حفاری آن را لوله گذاری می کنند و سپس برای آبکشی از آنها از تجهیزات موتور و پمپ استفاده می کنند .


آب های سطحی نیز به صورت رودخانه ها، تالاب ها و دریاها و... در سطح زمین جریان دارند. در نقاطی که آبهای سطحی همانند دریاچه ها و رودخانه ها وجود نداشته و یا غیر قابل استفاده باشند نیازهای آبی توسط منابع آب زیرزمینی برطرف می شود.

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